Monday, 24 April 2017

#AAN2017: Teaching Course Progressive MS

Did you know that progressive MS is a tractable problem? #AAN2017 #MSBlog 

As promised my slides from my AAN teaching course this year. I think my talk went down reasonably well. As I had quite a few slides I tended to rush through the presentation, but overall I think I got several important messages across including a punt for our #ThinkHand campaign. I spent at least 30 minutes after my presentation dealing with questions. If anything I at least stimulated discussion around the topic of progressive MS.

CoI: multiple

Sunday, 23 April 2017

Detecting myelin

Myelin Detection Using Rapid Quantitative MR Imaging Correlated to Macroscopically Registered Luxol Fast Blue-Stained Brain Specimens.Warntjes JBM, Persson A, Berge J, Zech W.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 . doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5168. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myelin detection is of great value in monitoring diseases such as multiple sclerosis and dementia. However, most MR imaging methods to measure myelin are challenging for routine clinical use. Recently, a novel method was published, in which the presence of myelin is inferred by using its effect on the intra- and extracellular water relaxation rates and proton density, observable by rapid quantitative MR imaging. The purpose of this work was to validate this method further on the brains of 12 fresh, intact cadavers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 12 brains were scanned with a quantification sequence to determine the longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates and proton density as input for the myelin estimations. Subsequently, the brains were excised at postmortem examination, and brain slices were stained with Luxol fast blue to verify the presence of myelin. The optical density values of photographs of the stained brain slices were registered with the MR images and correlated with the myelin estimation performed by quantitative MR imaging.
RESULTS: A correlation was found between the 2 methods with a mean Spearman ρ for all subjects of 0.74 ± 0.11. Linear regression showed a mean intercept of 1.50% ± 2.84% and a mean slope of 4.37% ± 1.73%/%. A lower correlation was found for the separate longitudinal relaxation rates and proton density (ρ = 0.63 ± 0.12 and -0.73 ± 0.09, respectively). For transverse relaxation rates, the ρ was very low (0.11 ± 0.28).
CONCLUSIONS: The observed correlation supports the validity of myelin measurement by using the MR imaging quantification method.

If true this should be an advance in this study they imaged dead people and then did the histology to suggest whats seen is myelination, so more easy validation steps. Too often we see MR parameter this or MR parameter that described to be this or that, based on unconfirmed presumptions. Eg Gadolium is alway presumed to be cell infiltration, when it is probably just fluid movement and therefore is more extensive than cellular movement.

Not in my Name again

Zakaria MMA, Mikhael SY, Hussein AKA, El-Din RAS, El-Malak HWA, Hewedi IH, Nadim HS.Failure of the vascular hypothesis of multiple sclerosis in a rat model of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Folia Neuropathol. 2017;55(1):49-59

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a series of stenotic malformations in the cerebrospinal venous outflow routes, which is postulated to cause multiple sclerosis (MS). The hypotheses assumed that CCSVI leads to iron deposition which triggers inflammation and demyelination in MS. Invasive endovascular treatment of CCSVI was initiated based on the previous theory. The present study was designed to validate this hypothesis using a rat model of CCSVI. Bilateral jugular vein ligation (JVL) was performed on female albino rats (n = 15), and sham-operated rats (n = 15) were used as a control group. The rats were followed clinically for eight months and neurological examination detected no weakness or paralysis in the operated rats. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and the brains were processed for histopathological examination of tissue sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin, myelin stain, silver impregnation, iron stain and immunohistochemical preparations for GFAP, CD68 and CD45. Semithin sections stained with toluidine blue were also examined. In the JVL group, increased iron deposition in the white matter was detected. An increase in the size and number of astrocytes along with increased GFAP immunoreactivity denoting reactive gliosis was also noted in the JVL group. However, no signs of demyelination, inflammation or axonopathy were detected. This study revealed that iron deposition in the JVL group as a model for CCSVI was not associated with cardinal histopathological findings of MS. It is therefore recommended that the invasive endovascular treatment of CCSVI should be reconsidered and further controlled clinical studies be carried out to provide a better understanding of the pathogeneses of MS.
I said I wasn't going to report on this subject, but really I need to say...why?

As part of openess we have been asked to speak about animal experimentation, which I do on this blog.

In relation to the above post, the human studies have already questioned the existence of CCSVI as for animal studies.

We have been here before, 5 years ago in fact 

It was a waste of time then also.

Saturday, 22 April 2017

#ThinkSpeak: blinkered

What do you do when your neurologist knows best and says no? #ThinkSpeak #MSBlog

The other day an esteemed colleague, who is based in the US, contacted me as a co-author on the ocrelizumab in PPMS (Oratorio) study, to ask me 'how could I support the study's claim that ocrelizumab was effective in PPMS?'. He said the study was only positive because it was loaded with relapsing patients. The latter is based on the observation that approximately a quarter of subjects had Gd-enhancing lesions on their baseline scan.

I informed him that he was wrong for several reasons:

1. Firstly, the subjects in this study had PPMS. Anyone with a history of relapses was excluded.

2. It is not uncommon for pwPPMS to have Gd-enhancing lesions on MRI, particularly early in the course of their disease. I pointed out that the reason why a quarter of subjects had active baseline scans was that this was an early, and relatively young, population of PPMSers. The latter didn't occur by chance but by design. The study design was informed by the rituximab in PPMS trial, which showed that younger people with active MRIs were more likely to respond to treatment in a short period of time. To ignore this insight would have been folly.

3. I mentioned to him that the study was also positive across numerous secondary and tertiary endpoints, including objective MRI outcomes. Surely this meant the drug was working?

4. I explained to him my length-dependent axonopathy hypothesis and sent him our recent publication, which goes a long way to explaining the ORATORIO results. He said very interesting, but this didn't change his position.

5. I pointed out to him that although the treatment effect on EDSS and timed-25ft walk was relatively modest (~25% slowing of progression), the impact on upper limb function (9-HPT) was almost double (~45%). Wasn't ocrelizumab indicated on this observation alone? This particular individual is fully aware about how important hand function is for pwMS.

6. I also said that ocrelizumab worked in both cohorts of subjects, those with and without Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline. Although the results in these two subgroups were not statistically significant, the positive trends were obvious. It is important to realise the study was not powered to test a treatment effect in these two cohorts therefore we have to accept the overall results at face value. 

Despite my protestations he informed me that although all my points were interesting and valid he was not convinced by the science and therefore would not be offering ocrelizumab to his patients with PPMS. How do I respond to this? As I said last weekend neurologists are never wrong they can always justify their position from their own perspective. All I that I can hope is that pwPPMS under his care are informed and active. They need to arm themselves with knowledge and ask the right questions. If you aren't satisfied with the answers challenge them and ask some more questions. If you are still not satisfied you can always vote with your feet. 

This episode is deja vu. Almost the exact scenario played out in the UK when the interferons were launched for treating RRMS. Many neurologists would not accept that this class of drug was effective and hence were not offering them to their patients. Gradually things changed and most neurologists now accept that DMTs do modify the course of RRMS. I can only expect the same thing to happen with the treatment of more advanced MS (formerly know as progressive MS). Let's hope so for the sake of the thousands of PPMSers out there. 

Montalban et al. Ocrelizumab versus Placebo in Primary Progressive Multiple SclerosisN Engl J Med. 2017 Jan 19;376(3):209-220.

Background: An evolving understanding of the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis suggests that depleting B cells could be useful for treatment. We studied ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively depletes CD20-expressing B cells, in the primaryprogressive form of the disease. 

Methods: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 732 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis in a 2:1 ratio to receive intravenous ocrelizumab (600 mg) or placebo every 24 weeks for at least 120 weeks and until a prespecified number of confirmed disability progression events had occurred. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with disability progression confirmed at 12 weeks in a time-to-event analysis. 

Results: The percentage of patients with 12-week confirmed disability progression was 32.9% with ocrelizumab versus 39.3% with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.98; P=0.03). The percentage of patients with 24-week confirmed disability progression was 29.6% with ocrelizumab versus 35.7% with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.98; P=0.04). By week 120, performance on the timed 25-foot walk worsened by 38.9% with ocrelizumab versus 55.1% with placebo (P=0.04); the total volume of brain lesions on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) decreased by 3.4% with ocrelizumab and increased by 7.4% with placebo (P<0.001); and the percentage of brain-volume loss was 0.90% with ocrelizumab versus 1.09% with placebo (P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the change in the Physical Component Summary score of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Infusion-related reactions, upper respiratory tract infections, and oral herpes infections were more frequent with ocrelizumab than with placebo. Neoplasms occurred in 2.3% of patients who received ocrelizumab and in 0.8% of patients who received placebo; there was no clinically significant difference between groups in the rates of serious adverse events and serious infections. 

Conclusions: Among patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, ocrelizumab was associated with lower rates of clinical and MRI progression than placebo. Extended observation is required to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of ocrelizumab. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche; ORATORIO number, NCT01194570 .).

CoI: multiple

MS news maybe you will get access to fampridine

I was speaking to a pwMS and they told me that the company Acorda developing fampridine with Biogen has lost its patents in a court case, meaning that from 2018, generic fampridine may become available.

At present it has not got the NICE seal of approval and is not considered cost effective and so in many place you get no access.
Although there are surely a few more court battles to be had.

The price should drop and create greater access, but whilst checking this out, it seems the company has shed 20% of its staff.

So it is a business and a brutal business at that.
So it is about the bottom line